Utilitarianism is the approach to ethics which implies that the end results justify the means taken to achieve that end.
For example, in the pdf, it is mentioned that Indian reporters disguised themselves as businessmen–with fake companies and documents–to investigate corruption in the military. They bribed military officials, to the length of providing them with prostitutes, in order to lay the groundwork for the investigation, which was documented on film.
The investigation led to corrupt officials, even the minister of defense, to resign. This end result was beneficial to society. But the means by which the reporters obtained this–by lying, spying, and creating fraudulent documents–would not be considered ethical.
In your opinion, did the reporters act justly? If you were one of the reporters, would you do the same? Why or why not? Explain.